Worst Tornado In Arkansas: A Comprehensive Historical Overview

May 21, 2024

Tornadoes are violent vortices of air extending from severe thunderstorms to the ground. While the United States experiences more tornadoes than any other country, specific regions like "Tornado Alley" are typically more active. Although Arkansas is not traditionally considered part of Tornado Alley, it has experienced significant tornado outbreaks over the years.

Meteorological Conditions

Tornadoes in Arkansas are often influenced by the meeting of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico with cold air from Canada. The state's geography—comprising hills, trees, and low cloud decks—can obscure tornadoes, making them difficult to see and complicating tornado counts.

"One of the Casualties of the 2014 Arkansas Tornadoes: The New $14M Middle School in Vilonia, AR" by JoeInSouthernCA is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/.

Historical Tornado Events in Arkansas

Notable Tornado Outbreaks

Arkansas has faced several devastating tornado events throughout its history:

  • January 21, 1999: Record-setting outbreak with 56 tornadoes in one day, the most active January day in any state.
  • March 1, 1997: A deadly outbreak resulting in 25 fatalities.
  • March 21, 1952: The deadliest outbreak in Arkansas history, with 112 fatalities.

21st Century Outbreaks

Significant tornado events in recent years include:

  • February 5, 2008: Historic EF-4 tornado with a 123-mile path across seven counties, causing 12 deaths and considerable damage.
  • Other notable dates include December 18, 2002; May 16, 2003; and November 27, 2005.

"Arkansas, Tornado" by southerntabitha is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/.

Tornado Statistics and Damage

Impact and Damage

From 2000 to 2010, Arkansas experienced 622 tornadoes, resulting in 39 deaths, 540 injuries, and over $650 million in damage. Tornadoes often lead to high fatality rates, exacerbated by the state's geographical and socioeconomic factors.

Fatality Statistics

Arkansas ranks high in tornado-related fatalities per 100,000 people. Poor visibility due to terrain and lower socioeconomic status contribute to higher death tolls.

Tornado Patterns and Characteristics

Seasonality

Tornadoes in Arkansas are most common in April but also occur frequently in late fall and winter. Many tornadoes happen at night, increasing the risk of fatalities.

Measurement of Tornado Intensity

Tornadoes were historically measured by the Fujita Scale (F-scale) ranging from F0 to F5. The Enhanced Fujita Scale is now used to provide a better understanding of tornado intensity.

Typical Tornado Intensity and Fatalities

The average tornado in Arkansas is weak (F1.25 on the F-scale). However, most fatalities occur in stronger tornadoes (F4), despite their lower occurrence.

"Arkansas, Tornado" by southerntabitha is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/.

Mitigation and Public Safety Advancements

Improvements in Warning Systems

Advancements in tornado warning systems have significantly reduced fatalities. The National Weather Service's tornado warnings, community sirens, and incentives for tornado-proof safe rooms are crucial improvements. Additionally, NOAA weather radios are being distributed to enhance coverage, especially in rural areas.

Detailed Fatal Tornado Events

An exhaustive list of documented fatal tornadoes in Arkansas from 1871 to 2023 highlights the extensive history and impact of these natural disasters in the state.

Further Reading and Research

Various studies and historical journals, including works by Lucille Tucker Burkett, Robert D. Craig, and Kenneth Heard, provide in-depth analyses and personal accounts of tornadoes in Arkansas.

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