The iron and steel industry in India has a long history, dating back to 4000 years. In fact, the famous Mehrauli pillar is believed to be one of the oldest steel structures in the world.
Almost all of the country’s major steel-making centres are situated on the Chhota Nagpur plateau, which is spread across four states: West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. The Indian Steel Authority (SAIL) manages these plants.
All the plants are well connected with the national network and have good power, water and transport facilities. Most of them are located in areas that have excellent availability of raw materials.
Some of the major iron and steel producing centers are:
Bhilai, Durgapur and Burnpur in West Bengal; Jamshedpur in Jharkhand; Rourkela and Bokaro in Orissa.
Bokaro Steel Plant is a large integrated steel plant in India, which started production in 1972. It is situated in the Bardhaman district of West Bengal. It obtains iron ore from Kiriburu mines, coal from Bokaro and Jharia coalfields of Jharkhand and limestone from Palamu district.
It also has cheap hydroelectric power from Damodar Valley Corporation.
The TISCO plant in Jamshedpur was founded by Jamshedji Tata in 1907. It produces pig iron and steel.
Several other small steel plants are scattered around the country. These produce steel in electric furnaces using scrap and sponge iron. The steel produced in these plants is mainly used in manufacturing industries.