What is Each Row on the Periodic Table Called?

February 15, 2024

The horizontal rows on the periodic table are called periods. The vertical columns are called groups. Each period corresponds to a different group of elements. The number of valence electrons in an element increases across a period from left to right. This gives rise to the periodic law, which states that properties of elements repeat in a regular way.

Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev noticed that certain patterns occurred in the properties of elements. He then arranged the elements into seven horizontal rows, known as periods, and 18 vertical columns, or groups. Elements with similar properties belong to the same group. For example, all the elements in Group 1 have one proton in their nucleus and therefore similar chemical properties. Similarly, all the elements in Group 2 have two valence electrons and share similar properties.

Each element on the periodic table is listed with its symbol, atomic number and average atomic mass. It is also often colour-coded. Each colour represents a group in which the element belongs. The symbol for an element usually starts with the first letter or first two letters of its English name, but may also start with a Latin word or a Greek numeral.

The seventh period in the periodic table has not been discovered naturally. However, some of its elements can be artificially produced by bombarding other elements with sub-atomic particles. For example, uranium (atomic number 92) can be split to produce a mixture of elements with atomic numbers 93-100.


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